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The shift in industry toward connected and continuous monoclonal antibody (mAb) processing has necessitated the development of novel approaches to improve or replace traditional unit operations that rely on hold tanks or operate in bind-elute mode. One such operation is virus inactivation with low pH, a critical virus reduction step in mAb downstream processing. Traditional low pH inactivation operations involve one or more large holding tanks in which product is maintained at a target low pH level for a specific period of time, typically 30-60 minutes. Translating this batch operation to a flow-through continuous process requires careful control of multiple factors to assure effective virus inactivation.
In this presentation, we describe the impact of buffer/mAb composition on the kinetics of virus inactivation. We address incubation chamber design which has implications for system size, processing times, and safety factor. Data demonstrating equivalency between batch and in-line systems is also presented. In-line technology that replaces batch operations and enables effective virus inactivation is expected to play an important role in the development of next generation mAb processing operations.
The current discussion about continuous processing in upstream and downstream manufacturing for biopharmaceutical products leads to potential new challenges for all unit operations involved such as virus retentive filtration. The main focus of this presentation will be a Design of Experiment (DOE) study performed with a commercially available virus retentive filter to proof the robust virus retention in a fully continuous downstream process. The impact of relevant process parameters such as flow rate/ operating pressure and processing time on the retention performance was determined.
Virus filtration is a dedicated step for removal of both endogenous and adventitious virus in most mAb downstream processes. High throughput is essential to keep the cost of virus filters to a reasonable level. This case study will present the throughput comparison of virus filters from four different vendors using multiple mAb feed streams. Development of cost effective prefiltration strategy will be discussed to improve the throughput of virus filters.
Different animal parvoviruses are in use for spiking studies to determine the reduction capacity of virus filtration processes for small viruses. The use of MVM (Minute Virus of Mice) and PPV (Porcine Parvovirus) is common but also BPV (Bovine Parvovirus) and CPV (Canine Parvovirus) are used. The current assumption is that virus filtration reduction factors obtained with different model viruses are comparable as the size of these parvoviruses is very similar. We have performed studies comparing reduction factors obtained with different parvovirus models designed as separate as well as co-spiking studies. Our studies show that co-spiking is a valid approach to study the influence of the species of parvovirus used on the reduction factor obtained. Our studies show that the virus reduction factor obtained can be significantly influenced by the choice of parvovirus model and is dependent upon the filter type and filtration conditions. The impact of these results on the choice of parvovirus model used for virus validation studies and on the design of the virus filtration process developed is discussed.